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Current management options for men with localized prostate cancer include active surveillance (delayed treatment/watchful waiting), surgery (radical prostatectomy), external beam radiotherapy, and brachytherapy (prostate radioactive seed implantation).
Minimally invasive, ablative therapies such as cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound are also being explored as treatment options and are considered experimental. More advanced cancers may require combinations of therapies or addition of hormone therapy or chemotherapy to surgery or radiation.
Treatment selection is based on factors such as patient health and treatment preference as well as cancer characteristics such as extent of disease (based on PSA and digital rectal examination) and cancer grade.