Several blood samples in test tubes contained in a wire rack.


Hair Reference Range


Essential Element
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Boron 0.4 3.39 µg/g 0.037 0.314 µmol/g
Calcium 300 1000 µg/g 7.5 25.0 µmol/g
Chromium 0.050 0.350 µg/g 1.0 6.7 nmol/g
Cobalt 0.002 0.050 µg/g 0.03 0.85 nmol/g
Copper 10.0 28.0 µg/g 0.16 0.44 µmol/g
Iodine 0.10 1.20 µg/g 0.8 9.5 nmol/g
Iron 4.5 15.0 µg/g 0.08 0.27 µmol/g
Magnesium 20.0 100.0 µg/g 0.82 4.11 µmol/g
Manganese 0.08 0.50 µg/g 1.46 9.10 nmol/g
Molybdenum 0.025 0.100 µg/g 0.26 1.04 nmol/g
Phosphorus 125 240 µg/g 4.0 7.8 µmol/g
Potassium 5.0 60.0 µg/g 0.13 1.53 µmol/g
Selenium 0.50 1.80 µg/g 6.3 22.8 nmol/g
Sodium 5.0 65.0 µg/g 0.22 2.83 µmol/g
Strontium 0.3 5.38 µg/g 3.4 61.3 nmol/g
Sulfur 45.0 55.0 mg/g 1.40 1.72 mmol/g
Tin 0.050 0.400 µg/g 0.42 3.37 nmol/g
Vanadium 0.002 0.030 µg/g 0.04 0.59 nmol/g
Zinc 140 200 µg/g 2.14 3.06 µmol/g
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0 8.0 µg/g 0 0.296 µmol/g
Antimony 0 0.040 µg/g 0 0.33 nmol/g
Arsenic 0 0.150 µg/g 0 2.0 nmol/g
Barium 0 1.5 µg/g 0 10.9 nmol/g
Bismuth 0 0.095 µg/g 0 0.45 nmol/g
Cadmium 0 0.150 µg/g 0 1.34 nmol/g
Lead 0 1.500 µg/g 0 7.24 nmol/g
Mercury 0 1.000 µg/g 0 4.98 nmol/g
Nickel 0 0.35 µg/g 0 6.0 nmol/g
Palladium 0 0.200 µg/g 0 1.88 nmol/g
Silver 0 0.2500 µg/g 0 2.32 nmol/g
Thallium 0 0.0020 µg/g 0 9.8 nmol/g
Titanium 0 0.40 µg/g 0 8.4 nmol/g
Uranium 0 0.060 µg/g 0 0.25 nmol/g


Whole Blood Reference Range


Essential Trace Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Calcium 57.5 78.0 mg/L 1.43 1.95 mmol/L
Chromium 0.12 0.40 µg/L 2.3 7.7 nmol/L
Cobalt 0.11 0.39 µg/L 1.9 6.6 nmol/L
Copper Male 683 1036 µg/L 10.8 16.3 µmol/L
Copper Female 752 1565 µg/L 11.8 24.6 µmol/L
Magnesium 31.8 44.0 mg/L 1.31 1.81 mmol/L
Manganese 5.4 19.5 µg/L 98 355 nmol/L
Molybdenum 0.4 1.6 µg/L 4.2 16.7 nmol/L
Selenium 160 261 µg/L 2.0 3.3 µmol/L
Vanadium 0.026 0.106 µg/L 0.5 2.1 nmol/L
Zinc 4837 7980 µg/L 74 122 µmol/L
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0.0 15.1 µg/L 0 560 nmol/L
Antimony 0.00 0.09 µg/L 0.00 0.74 nmol/L
Aresenic 0.0 3.8 µg/L 0.0 50.7 nmol/L
Cadmium 0-16 years 0.00 0.71 µg/L 0.0 6.3 nmol/L
Cadmium ≥ 17 years 0.00 3.60 µg/L 0.0 32.0 nmol/L
Cadmium Smokers 0.0 5.4 µg/L 0.0 48.1 nmol/L
Lead 0.0 20.0 µg/L 0.00 0.10 µmol/L
Mercury 0-16 years 0.00 1.72 µg/L 0.0 8.6 nmol/L
Mercury ≥ 17 years 0.00 3.70 µg/L 0.0 18.4 nmol/L
Nickel 0.0 1.3 µg/L 0.0 22.2 nmol/L
Niobium 0.000 0.035 µg/L 0.00 0.38 nmol/L
Silver 0.00 0.34 µg/L 0.0 3.2 nmol/L
Thallium 0.000 0.039 µg/L 0.00 0.19 nmol/L
Titanium 0.0 1.0 µg/L 0.0 20.9 nmol/L


Erythrocyte Reference Range


Essential Trace Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Calcium 13.2 25.7 mg/L 0.33 0.64 mmol/L
Chromium 0.04 0.64 µg/L 0.8 12.3 nmol/L
Cobalt 0.02 0.29 µg/L 0.3 4.9 nmol/L
Copper 0-12 years 654 1114 µg/L 10.3 17.5 µmol/L
Copper ≥ 13 years 616 929 µg/L 9.7 14.6 µmol/L
Magnesium 40.1 61.2 mg/L 1.65 2.52 mmol/L
Manganese 9.4 38.3 µg/L 171 697 nmol/L
Molybdenum 0.2 1.0 µg/L 2.1 10.4 nmol/L
Selenium 227 365 µg/L 2.9 4.6 µmol/L
Vanadium 0.012 0.054 µg/L 0.2 1.1 nmol/L
Zinc 0-12 years 5194 11946 µg/L 79 183 µmol/L
Zinc ≥ 13 years 9026 15061 µg/L 138 230 µmol/L
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0.0 19.1 µg/L 0 708 nmol/L
Antimony 0.00 0.20 µg/L 0.00 1.64 nmol/L
Aresenic 0.0 4.9 µg/L 0.0 65.4 nmol/L
Cadmium 0.00 6.30 µg/L 0.0 56.1 nmol/L
Cadmium smokers 0.00 9.80 µg/L 0.0 87.2 nmol/L
Lead 0.0 36.8 µg/L 0.00 0.18 µmol/L
Mercury 0.00 6.25 µg/L 0.0 31.2 nmol/L
Nickel 0.0 2.8 µg/L 0.0 47.7 nmol/L
Niobium 0.000 0.049 µg/L 0.0 0.5 nmol/L
Silver 0.00 0.15 µg/L 0.0 1.4 nmol/L
Thallium 0.000 0.026 µg/L 0.00 0.13 nmol/L
Titanium 0.0 1.1 µg/L 0.0 23.0 nmol/L


Plasma Reference Ranges


Essential Trace Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Chromium 0.13 0.31 µg/L 2.5 6.0 nmol/L
Cobalt 0.14 0.49 µg/L 2.4 8.3 nmol/L
Copper 0-3 months 89 457 µg/L 1.4 7.2 µmol/L
Copper 4-6 months 248 1099 µg/L 3.9 17.3 µmol/L
Copper 7-12 months 502 1302 µg/L 7.9 20.5 µmol/L
Copper 1-5 years 801 1499 µg/L 12.6 23.6 µmol/L
Copper 6-9 years 839 1360 µg/L 13.2 21.4 µmol/L
Copper 10-13 male 800 1207 µg/L 12.6 19.0 µmol/L
Copper 10-13 female 822 1201 µg/L 12.9 18.9 µmol/L
Copper ≥ 14 male 711 1310 µg/L 11.2 20.6 µmol/L
Copper ≥ 14 female 860 2317 µg/L 13.5 36.5 µmol/L
Iodine 30.0 80.0 µg/L 0.24 0.63 µmol/L
Manganese 0-12 months 0.40 2.76 µg/L 7.3 50.2 nmol/L
Manganese 1-5 years 0.82 3.68 µg/L 14.9 67.0 nmol/L
Manganese 6-9 years 0.29 2.24 µg/L 5.3 40.8 nmol/L
Manganese 10-13 years 0.42 2.00 µg/L 7.6 36.4 nmol/L
Manganese ≥ 14 years 0.44 1.14 µg/L 8.0 20.7 nmol/L
Molybdenum 0.5 2.1 µg/L 5.2 21.9 nmol/L
Selenium 0-12 months 56.9 95.6 µg/L 0.72 1.21 µmol/L
Selenium 1-5 years 96.4 143.8 µg/L 1.22 1.82 µmol/L
Selenium 6-9 years 100.8 161.4 µg/L 1.28 2.04 µmol/L
Selenium ≥ 10 years 105.3 160.4 µg/L 1.33 2.03 µmol/L
Vanadium 0.032 0.088 µg/L 0.6 1.7 nmol/L
Zinc 0-1 month 647 1399 µg/L 9.9 21.4 µmol/L
Zinc 1-12 months 647 1301 µg/L 9.9 19.9 µmol/L
Zinc 1-4 years 673 1183 µg/L 10.3 18.1 µmol/L
Zinc 5-8 years 771 1072 µg/L 11.8 16.4 µmol/L
Zinc 9-12 years male 758 1007 µg/L 11.6 15.4 µmol/L
Zinc 9-12 years female 791 1176 µg/L 12.1 18.0 µmol/L
Zinc ≥ 13 years 617 979 µg/L 9.4 15.0 µmol/L
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0.0 7.9 µg/L 0 293 nmol/L
Nickel 0.0 1.3 µg/L 0.0 22.2 nmol/L
Titanium 0.0 0.38 µg/L 0.0 7.9 nmol/L


Serum Reference Ranges


Essential Trace Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Chromium 0.10 0.20 µg/L 1.9 3.8 nmol/L
Cobalt 0.03 0.40 µg/L 0.5 6.8 nmol/L
Toxic Elements
Titanium 0.0 0.28 µg/L 0.0 5.8 nmol/L


Liver Tissue Reference Range


Essential Elements Liver
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Cobalt 0.005 0.045 µg/g 0.08 0.76 nmol/g
Copper 10 35 µg/g 0.16 0.55 µmol/g
Iron 200 2000 µg/g 3.6 35.8 µmol/g
Magnesium 236 735 µg/g 9.7 30.2 µmol/g
Selenium 0.110 0.845 µg/g 1.39 10.70 nmol/g
Zinc 80 350 µg/g 1.22 5.36 µmol/g


Nail Reference Range

Toxic Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Arsenic 0.0 0.5 µg/g 0.00 6.68 nmol/g
Lead 0.00 4.75 µg/g 0.0 22.9 nmol/g


Random Urine Reference Range


Essential Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Boron 0.5 7.0 mg/L 0.05 0.65 mmol/L
Calcium 67 200 mg/L 1.67 4.99 mmol/L
Chromium 0.09 0.52 µg/L 1.7 10.0 nmol/L
Cobalt 0.07 0.83 µg/L 1.2 14.1 nmol/L
Copper 2.3 12.0 µg/L 0.04 0.19 µmol/L
Iodine 42 350 µg/L 0.33 2.76 µmol/L
Magnesium 15.0 120.0 mg/L 0.6 4.9 mmol/L
Manganese 0.07 0.50 µg/L 1.3 9.1 nmol/L
Molybdenum 13.0 120.0 µg/L 0.14 1.25 µmol/L
Potassium 1173 4691 mg/L 30 120 mmol/L
Selenium 20.0 90.0 µg/L 0.25 1.14 µmol/L
Sodium 920 4598 mg/L 40 200 mmol/L
Strontium 30 160 µg/L 0.34 1.82 µmol/L
Sulfur 140 600 mg/L 4.4 18.7 mmol/L
Tin 0.5 5.0 µg/L 4.2 42.2 nmol/L
Vanadium 0.013 2.120 µg/L 0.26 2.36 nmol/L
Zinc 60 400 µg/L 0.9 6.1 µmol/L
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0.0 17.0 µg/L 0 0.63 µmol/L
Antimony 0.0 0.056 µg/L 0.00 0.46 nmol/L
Aresenic Inorganic 0.0 10.0 µg/L 0.00 0.13 µmol/L
Aresenic Total 0.0 40.0 µg/L 0.00 0.53 µmol/L
Barium 0.0 3.5 µg/L 0.0 25.5 nmol/L
Beryllium 0.0 0.1 µg/L 0.0 11.1 nmol/L
Bismuth 0.00 0.07 µg/L 0.00 0.34 nmol/L
Cadmium 0.0 1.5 µg/L 0.0 13.4 nmol/L
Lead 0.0 3.0 µg/L 0.0 14.5 nmol/L
Mercury 0.0 3.0 µg/L 0.0 15.0 nmol/L
Nickel 0.0 3.5 µg/L 0.0 59.6 nmol/L
Silver 0.00 0.05 µg/L 0.00 0.46 nmol/L
Thallium 0.0 0.4 µg/L 0.00 1.96 nmol/L
Uranium 0.00 0.01 µg/L 0.000 0.042 nmol/L


24 Hour Urine Reference Range


Essential Elements
Conventional Unit SI Unit
Elements Low High Unit Low High Unit
Boron 0.8 10.5 mg/d 0.07 0.97 mmol/d
Calcium 100 301 mg/d 2.50 7.51 mmol/d
Chromium 0.20 0.80 µg/d 3.8 15.4 nmol/d
Cobalt 0.10 1.25 µg/d 1.7 21.2 nmol/d
Copper 3.8 17.8 µg/d 0.06 0.28 µmol/d
Iodine 100 459 µg/d 0.79 3.62 µmol/d
Magnesium 24.3 170.2 mg/d 1.0 7.0 mmol/d
Manganese 0.10 0.80 µg/d 1.8 14.6 nmol/d
Molybdenum 19.2 182.3 µg/d 0.20 1.90 µmol/d
Potassium 1173 5082 mg/d 30 130 mmol/d
Selenium 30.0 130.3 µg/d 0.38 1.65 µmol/d
Sodium 920 4989 mg/d 40 217 mmol/d
Strontium 40.0 229.6 µg/d 0.46 2.62 µmol/d
Sulfur 250 802 mg/d 7.8 25.0 mmol/d
Tin 1.0 7.0 µg/d 8.4 59.0 nmol/d
Vanadium 0.020 0.200 µg/d 0.39 3.93 nmol/d
Zinc 98 602 µg/d 1.5 9.2 µmol/d
Toxic Elements
Aluminum 0.0 25.1 µg/d 0 0.93 µmol/d
Antimony 0.0 0.084 µg/d 0.00 0.69 nmol/d
Aresenic Inorganic 0.0 15.0 µg/d 0.00 0.20 µmol/d
Aresenic Total 0.0 60.0 µg/d 0.00 0.80 µmol/d
Barium 0.0 5.0 µg/d 0.0 36.4 nmol/d
Beryllium 0.0 0.150 µg/d 0.0 16.7 nmol/d
Bismuth 0.0 0.1 µg/d 0.00 0.48 nmol/d
Cadmium 0.0 2.0 µg/d 0.0 17.8 nmol/d
Lead 0.0 4.0 µg/d 0.0 19.3 nmol/d
Mercury 0.0 4.0 µg/d 0.0 20.0 nmol/d
Nickel 0.0 5.0 µg/d 0.0 85.2 nmol/d
Silver 0.0 0.6 µg/d 0.00 2.94 nmol/d
Tellurium 0.000 0.015 µg/d 0.000 0.063 nmol/d
Thallium 0.0 25.1 µg/d 0.00 0.93 µmol/d
Uranium 0.000 0.015 µg/d 0.000 0.063 nmol/d
Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry London Health Sciences CentreSt. Joseph's Health Care LondonWestern University