Transvaginal pelvic ultrasound is a technique used to examine female reproductive organs by inserting a probe, called a transducer, through the vagina. The probe sends out sound waves which reflect off body structures while a computer converts sound waves into images. These images can reveal shape, status and position of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and bladder as well as any growths or abnormalities within these organs and the surrounding areas. Transvaginal ultrasound is also crucial to monitor the development of ovarian follicles during ovarian stimulation with fertility drugs.
Sono-hysterography, also called sono-HSG, refers to a procedure in which a saline solution is instilled into the uterus to enhance visualization during the transvaginal ultrasound examination. The saline fluid increases the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound technique improving the detection of polyps, hyperplasia, fibroids, and adhesions.