||cataleptic, analgesic and anesthetic agent
- produces an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, but without any sedation, hypnosis or effect on pharyngeal laryngeal reflexes
- reduces lower airway resistance and increases lung compliance in patients with bronchospasm
- has been used as adjunct to difficult or painful examinations and procedures
- for induction of anesthesia:
- 1.0-2.0 mg/kg IV bolus over 1-2 minutes, or 4-8 mg/kg IM; 50% of induction dose repeated as necessary for maintenance of anesthesia (q5-30 min)
- for treatment of bronchospasm:
- 1.0-2.0 mg/kg induction followed by 0.1-0.5 mg/min maintenance infusion
- for sedation and analgesia during procedures:
- 0.2 to 1.0 milligram/kilogram over 2 to 3 minutes, followed by continuous infusion of 5 to 20 micrograms/kilogram/minute or repeated as required
Continuous I V Infusion:
500 mg in 50 ml D5W or NS
Intermittent IV Infusion:
Dilute in D5W or NS to a maximum concentration 5 mg/ml.
- purposeless movements of extremities (not indicative of level of anesthesia)
- increased BP
- increased HR
- vivid dreams, with confusion or hallucinations, particularly during emergence from anesthesia; can be decreased with diazepam or decreasing sensory load
- increased salivation; can be decreased with atropine or scopolamine
- respiratory depression, mainly with too rapid administration
- increased cerebral spinal fluid pressure
- increased intraocular pressure
- ketamine + barbiturates = prolonged recovery time from ketamine
- ketamine + narcotics = prolonged recovery time from ketamine
- ketamine + atracurium = increased neuromuscular blockade
- ketamine + theophylline = possible decrease in seizure threshold
oxygen saturation; blood gases
skeletal muscle tone
presence of emergence reactions
level of consciousness
adequacy of pain control
- IV direct must be administered by a physician.
- May be administered by IV infusion by an approved nurse in CCTC.
- Continuous infusion must be administered via an infusion pump.
- For continuous infusions, placement of an arterial line for blood pressure monitoring is preferred.