- ampicillin is indicated for the treatment of suspected or documented infections caused by susceptible organisms
- ampicillin is a semi-synthetic penicillin with an extended spectrum; it is bactericidal against the usual penicillin-susceptible Gram-positive organisms (incl. group B streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, most strains of enterococci) and many common Gram-negative organisms (incl. Proteus mirabilis, many strains of E. coli, Salmonellae and Shigellae, most strains of Neisseria meningitidis and nonpenicillinase - producing N.gonorrhoeae, many strains of Haemophilus influenzae)
- ampicillin works similar to other penicillins, ie. inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis
- ampicillin is most often given in combination with an aminoglycoside, partly because of in vitro and animal studies that indicate a synergistic bactericidal effect
- in adults the major adverse effects associated with ampicillin are hypersensitivity reactions and an "ampicillin rash"; in general, however, ampicillin is very well tolerated by neonates
- there is the possibility that seizures can occur if serum levels become too high or if the drug is administered too quickly
- phlebitis has been reported only rarely following IV administration
- Standard dose: 50 mg/kg IV q12h
- Meningitis: 100 mg/kg IV q12h
- For UTI Prophylaxis: 50 mg/kg/day
- in severe renal dysfunction decrease dose by 50%
- incompatible with TPN and lipid
- administer via IV push over 3 to 5 minutes or by slow IV infusion
- 250 mg vial
- reconstitute with 5 mL sterile water for injection to produce a final concentration of 50 mg/mL; (this concentration is approximately isotonic) this solution must be used within one hour after reconstitution
- in volume restricted infants, a concentration of 100 mg/mL may be used after reconstitution
- (100 mg/mL concentration is to be used for CENTRAL-LINE delivery only)(1)
- McEvoy G K (ed): AHFS Drug Information, American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 1991.
- Roberts, RJ: Drug Therapy in Infants, W.B. Saunders, Toronto, 1984.
- Trissel L.A.: Handbook on Injectable Drugs, American Society of Hospital Pharmacists 1988.
- "AmpicinR" package insert, Bristol Laboratories of Canada, Belleville, Ontario.
- Taeusch WH Ballard RA and Avery ME (ed): Schaffer and Avery's Diseases of the Newborn, WB Saunders Co, Toronto, Ontario; 6th Edition, 1991.
- Ford DC, Leist ER and Phelps SJ: Guidelines for administration of intravenous medications to pediatric patients, American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD, 1988.
- Personal Communication. Mr. Larocque, Novapharm Limited, Scarborough, Ontario, ll June 1993.
- Phelps SJ: Pediatric Injectable Drugs, 6th Edition, American Society of health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda,MD, 2001.